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Drawing and Design Intentions -- an Investigation of freehand drawing conventions in design
    Design Thinking Research Symposium 'Design Representation', proceedings of 4th Design Thinking Research Symposium 1999, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA pp1-10 1999
    Designers use drawings to explore alternatives and to test their ideas employing different symbols and configurations for different design concerns, or tasks. We argue that designer's attention to, and interest in, these various tasks can be determined by examining the drawing symbols and spatial arrangements. We have conducted several empirical studies on design and drawing to determine whether, and to what extent, it is possible to infer, interpret, or even guess what a designer was thinking about by looking at the drawings she has made.