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Today's commercial CAD software is the product of years of research that began in the 1960's and 1970's. These applications have found widespread use in the architectural marketplace; nevertheless they represent only the first fruits of research in computer aided design. New developments based on research in human-computer interaction (HCI), computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW), and virtual reality (VR) will result in a next generation of tools for architectural design. Although preliminary applications to design have been demonstrated in each of these areas, excellent opportunities remain to exploit new technologies and insights in service of better design software. In this paper we briefly examine each of these areas using examples from our own work to discuss the prospects for future research. We envision that future design technologies will develop from current and traditional conventions of practice combined with forward looking application of emerging technologies. In HCI, pen based interaction will allow architects to use the pencil again, without sacrificing the added power of computer aided design tools, and speech recognition will begin to play a role in capturing and retrieving design critique and discussion. In CSCW, a new generation of applications will address the needs of designers more closely than current general purpose meeting tools. In VR, applications are possible that use the technology not simply to provide a sense of three-dimensional presence, but that organize design information spatially, integrating it into the representation of artifacts and places.